A brief history of optical fiber communication
Accompanied by social progress and development, as well as the people's growing material and cultural needs, communication to the large-capacity, long-distance direction is the inevitable trend of development. Since the lightwave has a very high frequency (about 300 million megahertz), that is to say with high broadband which can accommodate the huge communication information, so as a vector to use lightwave communication has centuries pursue the goal lies.
1, optical fiber communications milestone
In the mid 1960s, although after painstaking research over aperture waveguide gas lens waveguide, hollow metal waveguide, etc., want to achieve communication media use them as the transmission of light waves, but the end result of either attenuation is too large or expensive can not practical. That after hundreds of years people did not always find the lightwave transmission ideal transmission media.
In July 1966, British, Chinese scholars of Dr. Gao Kun (KCKao) PIEE magazine published a very famous article "for optical frequency fiber surface waveguides," This paper analyzed theoretically prove the use of optical fiber as the transmission medium in order to achieve the possibility of optical communications, and design of a communication optical fiber used in the waveguide junction (i.e. step-index fiber). More importantly, Science words to the communication by the manufacturer the possibility of Super consumable optical fiber, i.e. to strengthen the purification of raw materials, adding the appropriate dopant, the attenuation coefficient of the optical fiber can be reduced to 20dB/km. That time, the world can only manufacture optical fiber for industrial, medical, its attenuation in 1000dB/km. For manufacturing attenuation following fiber 20dB/km, the elusive. After the fact that the development of eloquent proof the article Dr. Gao Kun theoretical and scientific bold to the correctness of the statements were made, so this article hailed as a milestone in the optical fiber communication.
Corning Glass Company in 1970, according to Charles Kao, the idea of ??the article, with improved chemical phase deposition (MCVD method) to create the world's first one ultra-low consumption of the optical fiber to guide the development of optical fiber communication explosive race fire cable.
Then Corning Glass Company manufactured fiber is only a few meters long, about 20dB/km attenuation, and a few hours after they damaged. But it is, after all, prove that the use of science and technology at the time and process for manufacturing ultra-low consumption of fiber-optic communication is entirely possible, and that is to find a low attenuation transmission the lightwave ideal transmission media, optical communication studies major substance of breakthrough.
3, the explosive growth of
Since 1970, the developed countries of the world, the study of the optical fiber communication devoted a lot of manpower and material resources, its fast and fierce, scale and the speed far beyond the people by surprise, so that the fiber communications technology has made extremely amazing progress.
From the fiber attenuation:
Seven O: 20dB/km
2072: 4 dB/km
Nine O: 0.14dB/km
It is close to the theory of the quartz fiber attenuation the limit 0.1dB/km.
From the optical devices:
O In 1978, Bell Labs developed the world's first at room temperature under continuous wave GaAlAs semiconductor laser, to find a suitable light source device for optical fiber communications. Later evolved to better performance and life of tens of thousands of hours heterostructure stripe lasers and now a single longitudinal mode distributed feedback laser (DFB) and the multi-quantum well the lasers (MQW). The light receiving device development from simple silicon PIN photodiode of ¢ó - ¢õ avalanche photodiode quantum efficiency up to 90% of the APD.
From the optical fiber communication systems:
It is the rapid development of optical fiber manufacturing technology and optoelectronic devices manufacturing technology, as well as large-scale development of VLSI technology and microprocessor technology driven small capacity to large capacity of optical fiber communication systems, from short distance to long distance from low level to high level, from the old system (PDH) to the rapid development of the new system (SDH).
In 2076 in Atlanta, the United States launched the world's first practical optical fiber communication systems. The bit rate of 45Mb/s, the the repeater distance of 10 km. 2080, multimode optical fiber communication systems commercialized (140Mb/s), and proceeded to single-mode optical fiber communication system field test work.
In 2090, the single-mode fiber-optic communication system into the commercialization stage (565Mb/s), and proceeded to conduct field trials of the zero dispersion shifted fiber and wavelength division multiplexing and coherent communication and digital synchronization hierarchy (SDH) technology and formulated standards.
1993 SDH products began commercialization (622Mb/s or less).
In 2095, 2.5 Gb/s SDH products into the commercial stage.
In 2096, 10 Gb/s SDH products into the commercial stage.
In 2097, the Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology 20Gb/s and 40Gb/s SDH product testing is a major breakthrough.
In addition, the optical soliton communication, long wavelength communication and coherent optical communication is making tremendous progress.
In summary, from 1970 to the present, although only a short time of less than three years, but the fiber-optic communication technology has made the extremely amazing progress. Extremely wide bandwidth lightwave communication as a carrier of the transmission of information in order to achieve this for hundreds of years people dream fantasy has become a living reality in today. Fiber communication, however, its practical application is only about 2% of its potential capacity, there is a huge potential waiting to be development and utilization. Therefore, optical fiber communication technology has not stagnated, but the direction of development to a higher level, higher stage. ...
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